Vitamin D has no overall effect on AMD incidence, progression

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Neither vitamin D3 or marine ω-3 fatty acid supplementation had a significant overall effect on the incidence or progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), according to a study in JAMA Ophthalmology.

This study included 25 871 participants from the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL) clinical trial of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), 2000 IU per day, and marine ω-3 fatty acids, D3 (cholecalciferol), 2000 IU per day supplementation for the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Over a median of 5.3 years of treatment and follow-up, 285 participants experienced an incident AMD, and 39 experienced progression to advanced AMD (N = 324).

In the group of patients treated with vitamin D3, 163 events occurred compared with 161 in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; 95% CI, 0.82-1.27). In patients treated with ω-3 fatty acids, 157 events occurred compared with 167 in the placebo group (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.76-1.17).

The primary endpoint, a composite of incident AMD and progression to advanced AMD, was not significantly affected by supplementation.

Christen WG, Cook NR, Manson JE, et al. Effect of vitamin D and ω-3 fatty acid supplementation on risk of age-related macular degeneration: An ancillary study of the VITAL Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2020;DOI:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2020.4409

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